### Project Description

**Optimal Preconditioning of Lattice Boltzmann Methods**

by

Izquierdo, S.; Fueyo, N.

in

Journal of Computational Physics. 2009

### Abstract

A preconditioning technique to accelerate the simulation of steady-state problems using the single-relaxation-time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) method was first proposed by Guo et al. [Z. Guo, T. Zhao, Y. Shi, Preconditioned lattice-Boltzmann method for steady flows, Phys. Rev. E 70 (2004) 066706-1]. The key idea in this preconditioner is to modify the equilibrium distribution function in such a way that, by means of a Chapman–Enskog expansion, a time-derivative preconditioner of the Navier–Stokes (NS) equations is obtained. In the present contribution, the optimal values for the free parameter γ of this preconditioner are searched both numerically and theoretically; the later with the aid of linear-stability analysis and with the condition number of the system of NS equations. The influence of the collision operator, single- versus multiple-relaxation-times (MRT), is also studied. Three steady-state laminar test cases are used for validation, namely: the two-dimensional lid-driven cavity, a two-dimensional microchannel and the three-dimensional backward-facing step. Finally, guidelines are suggested for an *a priori* definition of optimal preconditioning parameters as a function of the Reynolds and Mach numbers. The new optimally preconditioned MRT method derived is shown to improve, simultaneously, the rate of convergence, the stability and the accuracy of the lattice Boltzmann simulations, when compared to the non-preconditioned methods and to the optimally preconditioned SRT one. Additionally, direct time-derivative preconditioning of the LB equation is also studied.