Warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:225:\"Table './drupal_gfn_web/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and should be repaired\nquery: SELECT data, created, headers, expire, serialized FROM cache_filter WHERE cid = '3:729f89c008292f603ae29c7f5bfd43e7'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:31:\"/srv/www/gfn/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:27;}', 3, '', 'http://gfn.unizar.es/?q=es/node/138', '', '54.146.1.178', 1501210232) in /srv/www/gfn/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:7:\"warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:80:\"Parameter 1 to texy_image_texy_handler() expected to be a reference, value given\";s:5:\"%file\";s:32:\"/srv/www/gfn/includes/module.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:497;}', 3, '', 'http://gfn.unizar.es/?q=es/node/138', '', '54.146.1.178', 1501210232) in /srv/www/gfn/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:7:\"warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:93:\"Parameter 1 to texy_syntaxhighlighting_texy_handler() expected to be a reference, value given\";s:5:\"%file\";s:32:\"/srv/www/gfn/includes/module.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:497;}', 3, '', 'http://gfn.unizar.es/?q=es/node/138', '', '54.146.1.178', 1501210232) in /srv/www/gfn/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:7:\"warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:75:\"Parameter 1 to texy_texy_settings() expected to be a reference, value given\";s:5:\"%file\";s:32:\"/srv/www/gfn/includes/module.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:497;}', 3, '', 'http://gfn.unizar.es/?q=es/node/138', '', '54.146.1.178', 1501210232) in /srv/www/gfn/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:7:\"warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:81:\"Parameter 1 to texy_image_texy_settings() expected to be a reference, value given\";s:5:\"%file\";s:32:\"/srv/www/gfn/includes/module.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:497;}', 3, '', 'http://gfn.unizar.es/?q=es/node/138', '', '54.146.1.178', 1501210232) in /srv/www/gfn/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:7:\"warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:94:\"Parameter 1 to texy_syntaxhighlighting_texy_settings() expected to be a reference, value given\";s:5:\"%file\";s:32:\"/srv/www/gfn/includes/module.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:497;}', 3, '', 'http://gfn.unizar.es/?q=es/node/138', '', '54.146.1.178', 1501210232) in /srv/www/gfn/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:2007:\"Table './drupal_gfn_web/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and should be repaired\nquery: UPDATE cache_filter SET data = '\\n<p>The energy contents of human and animal waste generated in Spain is\\nestimated, as is the electricity that could be potentially generated from such\\nwaste. The waste considered is municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and\\nlivestock manure; several energy-recovery options are analyzed for the first\\none, \\\\emph{viz} the collection of landfill gas, incineration and anaerobic\\ndigestion. To estimate the potential, we use geo-referenced statistical in /srv/www/gfn/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:225:\"Table './drupal_gfn_web/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and should be repaired\nquery: SELECT data, created, headers, expire, serialized FROM cache_filter WHERE cid = '1:b168af876399ea695fe5d921bbbb9564'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:31:\"/srv/www/gfn/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:27;}', 3, '', 'http://gfn.unizar.es/?q=es/node/138', '', '54.146.1.178', 1501210232) in /srv/www/gfn/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:408:\"Table './drupal_gfn_web/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and should be repaired\nquery: UPDATE cache_filter SET data = '<p>© Grupo de Fluidodinámica Numérica de la Universidad de Zaragoza. gfn[arroba]unizar[punto]es</p>\\n', created = 1501210232, expire = 1501296632, headers = '', serialized = 0 WHERE cid = '1:b168af876399ea695fe5d921bbbb9564'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:31:\"/srv/www/gfn/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:112;}', 3, '', 'http://gfn.unizar.e in /srv/www/gfn/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135
Potential and cost of electricity generation from human and animal waste in Spain | Grupo de Fluidodinámica Numérica

Potential and cost of electricity generation from human and animal waste in Spain

  • user warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: SELECT data, created, headers, expire, serialized FROM cache_filter WHERE cid = '3:729f89c008292f603ae29c7f5bfd43e7' in /srv/www/gfn/includes/cache.inc on line 27.
  • user warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: UPDATE cache_filter SET data = '\n<p>The energy contents of human and animal waste generated in Spain is\nestimated, as is the electricity that could be potentially generated from such\nwaste. The waste considered is municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and\nlivestock manure; several energy-recovery options are analyzed for the first\none, \\emph{viz} the collection of landfill gas, incineration and anaerobic\ndigestion. To estimate the potential, we use geo-referenced statistical human\nand animal population data disaggregated to the county level. This level of\ndisaggregation allows the implementation of a cost model for the transformation\nof the waste into electricity, using a variety of technologies. The model\nconsiders the cost of transporting the waste to the transformation plant, and\ntakes into account the economies of scale afforded by larger plants for the\ncombined treatment of the waste in the county. The result is a generation-cost\ncurve, which sorts by increasing costs the generation potential in the whole of\nthe territory. The overall limits, in terms of primary energy and without\nconsidering alternative uses for the waste are between 725 and 4~438 $ktoe/y$\n(depending on the energy-recovery method) for municipal solid waste; 142\n$ktoe/y$ for sewage sluge; and 1~794 $ktoe/y$ for livestock manure. The cost of\nthe electricity generated depends greatly on the type of residue and the\ntechnology used for the transformation. Thus, the most economical option is the\nincineration of municipal solid waste, with an entry cost of around\n4 c\\euro/kWh. The generation entry-costs from livestock manure and sewage\nsludge are on the other hand in excess of 8 c\\euro/kWh.</p>\n\n<!-- by Texy2! -->', created = 1501210232, expire = 1501296632, headers = '', serialized = 0 WHERE cid = '3:729f89c008292f603ae29c7f5bfd43e7' in /srv/www/gfn/includes/cache.inc on line 112.
  • user warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: SELECT data, created, headers, expire, serialized FROM cache_filter WHERE cid = '1:b168af876399ea695fe5d921bbbb9564' in /srv/www/gfn/includes/cache.inc on line 27.
  • user warning: Table './drupal_gfn_web/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: UPDATE cache_filter SET data = '<p>&copy; Grupo de Fluidodinámica Numérica de la Universidad de Zaragoza. gfn[arroba]unizar[punto]es</p>\n', created = 1501210232, expire = 1501296632, headers = '', serialized = 0 WHERE cid = '1:b168af876399ea695fe5d921bbbb9564' in /srv/www/gfn/includes/cache.inc on line 112.
TítuloPotential and cost of electricity generation from human and animal waste in Spain
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsGómez A, Zubizarreta J, Rodrigues M, Dopazo C, Fueyo N
JournalRenewable Energy
Volume35
Pagination498 - 505
Date Published02/2010
ISSN09601481
Abstract

The energy contents of human and animal waste generated in Spain is estimated, as is the electricity that could be potentially generated from such waste. The waste considered is municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and livestock manure; several energy-recovery options are analyzed for the first one, \emph{viz} the collection of landfill gas, incineration and anaerobic digestion. To estimate the potential, we use geo-referenced statistical human and animal population data disaggregated to the county level. This level of disaggregation allows the implementation of a cost model for the transformation of the waste into electricity, using a variety of technologies. The model considers the cost of transporting the waste to the transformation plant, and takes into account the economies of scale afforded by larger plants for the combined treatment of the waste in the county. The result is a generation-cost curve, which sorts by increasing costs the generation potential in the whole of the territory. The overall limits, in terms of primary energy and without considering alternative uses for the waste are between 725 and 4~438 $ktoe/y$ (depending on the energy-recovery method) for municipal solid waste; 142 $ktoe/y$ for sewage sluge; and 1~794 $ktoe/y$ for livestock manure. The cost of the electricity generated depends greatly on the type of residue and the technology used for the transformation. Thus, the most economical option is the incineration of municipal solid waste, with an entry cost of around 4 c\euro/kWh. The generation entry-costs from livestock manure and sewage sludge are on the other hand in excess of 8 c\euro/kWh.

DOI10.1016/j.renene.2009.07.027
Short TitleRenewable Energy